In Russia, adoption was known since ancient times. As the first example of adoption in Russia, some researchers call the transfer on the deathbed of Rurik his son Igor Oleg, others consider Svyatopolk the adopted son of Vladimir. The Ipatiev Chronicle indicates that Izyaslav and Rostislav Mstislavichi were adopted by Vyacheslav.
The adoption procedure was not the same in different provinces. In many provinces, adoption did not require a special act or ceremony, it was enough to simply transfer the adoptive to the adoptive family. Adopted in Russia are often called adopted. The adopted adopted the rights and duties of his own children. He had to support the adoptive parents and pay taxes for them. If the adopted child left the adoptive parent, the latter should have allocated him part of his property. The size of such a part depended on the time that the adopted child worked in the adoptive family, as well as on whether the adopted child leaves voluntarily or the adoptive parent chased him. In the latter case, if there was no special agreement, the adopted were calculated as a worker. In the event of a dispute, the division took place in court. In some provinces, for example, in Poltava, adoption was formalized by agreement in writing, while the adoptive parent gave an obligation to allocate property to the adopter, and the adopted parent – to be respectful, to take care of the household, to take care of the adoptive parent to death.
The adoption condition in a number of Russian provinces was the absence of their children or their separation from their father and their running their household. This rule was not universally observed, which, in particular, is confirmed by the adoptive parent’s receipt given to the adopted son about the allocation of the last part of the property on an equal basis with his own children.
With the adoption of Christianity in Russia, Byzantine law began to be applied and adoption cases, like many other issues of family law, became subordinate to the Church. Adoption had to be approved by the diocesan bishop and a certain church ritual was observed – son-making. It went out of use in the 18th century. Christian law, borrowed from Byzantium, recognized as opposed to Christianity the former pagan order of establishing family relations. But, in no other area has custom turned out to be as tenacious as in family law. Customs did not succumb to extermination until the end of the nineteenth century, although they were already observed as rituals and had no legal significance. At the same time, opposite customs acted in different places; different classes of society in the same place adhered to different customs; in cultural centers and in the upper classes of society, customs were faster than the requirements of the law.
Adoption legislation began to develop from the beginning of the 19th century. The first law, satisfactory in scope, to describe the adoption procedure was adopted only in 1969. In the Russian pre-revolutionary legislation, the secret of adoption was not provided.
What is important for building a pedigree
- Depending on the era, you need to take into account the legislation and look at possible documentary traces on it (possible does not mean open).
- The practice of adoption throughout history has been more private than state in comparison with other acts of civil status.
- If the adoption was from a shelter, it doesn’t matter what age, you should pay the main attention to this institution and its funds.
Good luck in finding.