Before revolutionary genealogy is divided into two stages until 1858, this is the date of completion of the tenth revision, which is also the last. And the interval from 1958 to 1890. This gap is precisely such a genealogical hole.
Since 1860, there are more documents on peasants. From the same year, the life of a peasant is not just designated by a name or nickname, but the peasant becomes a full-fledged unit of society.
What sources tell us about the life of peasants? This is primarily land sources, charter, and documents related to the military reform of 1863.
The reform of 1868 was carried out in the interests of the landowners, 2.3 land plots in the Russian Empire by 1861 were laid and re-mortgaged.
It was possible for the state to act like a bank to assign to all landowners a certain date to redeem their estates, but everyone understood that the majority did not have such cash. Almost all the Russian nobility by 1861 lived on credit. The state did not take such a step, since it would have bankrupted 2.3 Russian nobility.
The land reform itself was carried out in such a way that the landowners received a constant source of income for 50 years. The peasants were obliged to redeem their land plots, while they simply could not redeem them.
After 1861, in land documents you can find a record of peasants as temporarily obligated, which means that the peasant pays his debt for land, a quitrent. When the debt has been paid to before at this moment in the metric books the peasant is already indicated as the owner.
Charter letters are different. Since 1863:
- Landowners – when peasants bought land.
- State – for those peasants who were state.
Very often, in the charter, usually on the borders of the Russian Empire in Belarus, Ukraine, etc., the names of all the male peasants are directly spelled out, what proportion they have and what part of the total levy they must pay.
Also in the amicable agreements between the peasant and the landowner you can find information about the people who were present at this agreement, as was customary when concluding an amicable or amicable agreement.
How was the redemption of land provided
All villages were divided into localities. The land was divided into:
- Manor is the place where the house, garden, utility rooms are standing.
- Arable land.
All this was called comfortable land.
There was still uncomfortable land, it is swamps where berries, ravines, gully are collected, it also miscalculated.
The land was paid in arrears and also corvee was paid twice a year.
Often, peasants entered into land disputes, this is also an important source in which all participants in the process and the object of the process itself, land, were indicated.
Source: on the lecture of the genealogy of V. Semenov.
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