Nobility is a privileged estate that arose in a feudal society and became the state-forming basis of this society in the Middle Ages of European history. The concept is partially reproduced in modern non-communist society. In a broad sense, the first nobility is called the European feudal aristocracy as a whole. In this sense, we can talk about the “French nobility”, “German nobility” and so on.
The original meaning of the Russian term “nobility” and Western European terms translated into Russian as “nobility” is not identical: if in Russia the nobility, when it emerged, is a military servant, opposed to the clan aristocracy – nobility, then the French. the term “noblesse”, England. “nobility”, German. “edel” originally meant primarily tribal nobility (aristocracy, from the Latin. “nobilis” – noble). As the social differences between the service and tribal aristocracy were erased and all secular feudal lords were united into a single estate, these terminological differences disappeared.
This concept of nobility is given to us by Wikipedia, but what is said in the code of laws of the Russian Empire: “The nobility is an estate, membership in which the investigation expires from the quality and virtue of the ancient men who distinguished themselves by merit, which they received the name noble“.
- “All those who are born from the noble ancestors or granted by the monarchs are taken to be noble.” Hereditary personal nobility, that is, inherited, acquired in such ways.
- Personal nobility was acquired by salary at the very highest discretion.
- Ranks in active service as a result of awards for service honors orders. It was necessary to rise to civil service until the ninth rank (this is a titular adviser), and the military to the first opera officer rank of fourteenth grade. in addition, persons who received the rank of fourth grade or colonel were not in active service, but when they retired, they were also recognized as personal and not hereditary nobles. Descendants of particularly distinguished nobles and eminent citizens.
- By salary, at the sole discretion of the autocratic power.
Thus there was: clan nobility; bestowed nobility; titled nobility; not titled nobility.
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