Odnodvortsy as estate

“Damn the mushrooms in the box, and scattered them over the forest: and the odnodors grew up! Collected the devil of all the odnodvorods in a sieve and carried it: he thundered and turned them over Voronezh!”

V.I. Dal

Odnodeliki is a class of shredded service landowners, once settled along the southern, mainly borders of the Moscow state, for their protection. Under Peter they were recorded in the revision “tales”, paid capitation taxes, but retained the right to personal land ownership and ownership of the peasants.

The impoverished descendants of ancient noble families (under Peter the Great, some of them were registered as odnors to avoid compulsory service), who had noble certificates, were among the same class. In 1801, they were given the right to search and prove the noble dignity lost by their ancestors. But three years later it was ordered to examine their evidence “with all severity”, while observing that people who had lost it were not allowed into the nobility “for guilt and serving the service.”

Fourth peasants are the category of former state peasants, before the reform of 1866, officially called odnodvoryaty. The class of classmates was formed from service people, children of the boyar and, mainly, lower ranks – Cossacks, archers, reytars, dragoons, soldiers, spearmen, gunners, zatinschikov, collars and servant watchmen who settled in the XVI and XVII centuries. on the eastern and southern borders of the Moscow state, to protect it from the Nogai and Crimean Tatars.

Servicemen of the lowest ranks in the Moscow state received a cash salary and feed in kind; estates for service were assigned to nobles and noble children; but since it was difficult to deliver food in kind for a significant army protecting the southeastern border, and mercenary servants who were not personally interested in border protection performed caretakers and other services carelessly, the government came to the idea of ​​giving land for maintenance not only of higher, but also the lower servants appointed to guard the border, and to take it to them near the latter. The service people of the Ukrainian cities were, therefore, both warriors and farmers. Their local areas, in general, were so insignificant that most of them were neither needed nor able to cultivate the land by serfs; each settled, therefore, on their land not by many, but by one yard, and when applying for civil status, Ukrainian servicemen received the name of single-palace buildings on this basis.

Their conversion to the peasant estate followed at a time when the southern border of the state moved far into the steppe, and service people settled between the Tula defense line (the direction of Shatsk-Tula-Bryansk-Putivl) and Belgorod (Kozlov-Korotoyak-Belgorod-Akhtyrka), they were no longer on the border, but inside the country; at the same time, the defense of the borders was entrusted to a regular army. According to the mural of 1672 (which did not include information about 10 cities), 1890 Ukrainian cities (Tula and Kaluga provinces) contained 3090, and 58 southern – 39560, a total of 42650 service people; one must think that these are only heads of families and that on their estates, besides women, there were men. At least 70 years later, during the second revision, the descendants of these service people – odnodvoryati (along with the old services service people), there were already 453 thousand male souls; during the 3rd revision (1761-65), there were 527 thousand souls; during the 8th revision (1833-35), there were 1238 thousand souls.

The main duty of Ukrainian servicemen was to guard the state border. Initially, all men over the age of 15 were involved in the service; then privileges were allowed, and at the end of the 17th century 1-2 people were taken from a large family, and the third stayed at home “on arable land”; four loners were considered as if for one family, and served in turn. With the formation of the regular army under Peter the Great, the existence of a special semi-agricultural, semi-military class was made unnecessary. Some of the Ukrainian children of the boyars became part of the nobility, but most of them – because of poverty, which depended on the shredding of estates, or because of their unwillingness to serve (obligatory for noblemen) – along with the lower ranks of service people became part of the peasants and received the name of single-palace people.

The word “odnodvorets” was first officially used in the decree of March 12, 1714, but in a private sense; as applied to the lower ranks for service people in general, it was first encountered in the decree of the census of 1719. The appeal of Ukrainian servicemen to peasants was made by census of them along with other “people of taxable status” and levying them with poll tax.

In accordance with the fact of the origin of classmates from servants, there is a fact of their ownership by peasants. Initially, peasants appeared in this environment mainly by giving lower servants the inhabited estates; subsequently, the class of single-peasant peasants increased by subscription to the noblemen’s classrooms, the purchase of peasants from the noblemen, their inheritance, etc. The number of single-peasant peasants, however, was very limited: by the 3rd revision – 17,675 souls, by the 4th — 21,531 souls, in 1834 – only about 11,000 souls, 1 peasant per 112 odnodvoryati. Initially, the single-yard peasants, like the landlords, paid only the capitation tax to the treasury; boundary instructions were supposed to charge them, as well as their owners, a tax on the maintenance of landmilitia; this was accomplished in 1786, and in 1787 it was decided not to exempt them from the quitrent even if they passed by inheritance to classmates who rose to the ranks of officers and were enrolled in the nobility. In 1827, single-peasant peasants were exempted from the quitrent for the reason that they carried a similar duty to their owners. Odnodvorytsy could sell peasants only to persons of their rank, to buy – also only from them; by a Senate decree of 1794 they were forbidden to let the peasants free, on the grounds that they were in the same salary with them, and the right to free peasants constituted the privilege of the nobility; in 1809 this prohibition was canceled as “not containing sufficient reasons.” In 1842, classmates were allowed to solicit exile from the peasants for misconduct and daring deeds in Siberia for settlement. Even Empress Catherine II made an attempt to redeem single-peasant peasants. In 1841, on the occasion of the requests of some classmates for their admission to the treasury, they began to gradually redeem them (no more than 1/10 of the unit or 1000 souls per year), with a payment of 100 rubles. for the soul; the odnodorytsov, insolvent to pay arrears, redemption was made, despite their disagreement. Until 1858, 7886 souls were acquired by the treasury, and this year the Highest ordered to buy all the rest.

The land received on the estate, by means of servants, was called a quarter, and the right to own this land was called a quarter right. The “assigned” land could not be sold, it could only be conceded to the closest kinship, therefore the real, multi-land single-yard villages, in which the descendants of the nobles and boyars lived, usually knew their pedigrees.

In the 19th century, certain groups of odnodvortsy were known by nicknames: “galmans” (swearing, stupid); “yonki” (from yon-on); “turkeys” (proud); Talagai (loafers, ignoramuses); “cheeks” (rough temper, saying “sho” in the place of “what”).

Good luck in finding.